Gamification in Education: The Motivation-Exploration-Implementation Theory

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Cyril A. Cabello, Mark N. Abadiano , Alan Mabitad , Danilo B. Pulma , Alexander Hipe



Gamification is an emerging trend in the educational context. It is embedded in the instructions anchored with game design elements in non-game context. It further amplifies the way how learners are hooked and attached with different technologies entailed with various online games and applications making them more motivated and engaged. This study sought to generate a theory in gamification in education. With this purpose, this paper will utilize the deductive axiomatic approach in theory generation following the steps provided by Padua (2012). There are five axioms construed, namely; (1) Gamification is universal in terms of its application to different topics discuss in the academe; (2) Gamification provokes the learners to think critically; (3) Gamification sustains the learner’s motivation and engagement in a classroom discussion; (4) Gamification creates no boundaries among the students since it is widely used in different schools in the country; and (5) Gamification provides a convenient way of teaching and learning from each other as students also share their expertise in manipulating gadgets and different high-end technologies. From these five axioms, ten propositions were formulated; Gamification should (1) make the game-designs and applications friendly, (2) have more interesting and thought-provoking activities online, (3) provide a clear and simple instructions in performing the activities; (4) formulate activities and tasks that are locally contextualized, (5) create learning and behavioral goals attainable; (6) provide a reward system right after each milestone in the activity; (7) make all learning activities fun and interactive; (8) have the applications supported by the government to make it accessible to all learners; (9) create a competitive learning environment; and (10) encourage learners to provide their feedback about the game designs and its applications for the improvement of the activities. With these propositions, the Motivation-Exploration-Implementation Theory for Gamification in Education was generated. This theory emphasizes the importance of gamification in the teaching-learning process whereby motivation, exploration, and implementation are important elements in achieving a competitive, contextualized, and conducive learning environment.

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