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Water is not only basic human need but also it is fundamental rights of human being. There are many regions, especially developing countries like Africans, where freshwater resources are inadequate to meet water needs. The problem is prevalent in Ethiopian particularly low land areas like Afar region. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint to human health and productivity. This research inquires the cause and consequence of lack of clean drinking water which is a basic right of human in Afar region. To investigate the problem the research employs qualitative methodology. The research has used nonprobability sampling. Primary data collected through interview and key informant interview, secondary sources collected from written documents have used in this research. The research found that factors related to infrastructures, water cleanness, natural factors, human factors, water management and delivery problems are cause for lack of clean drinking water and exacerbate potable water scarcity. Moreover, lack of drinking water- which is violation of the right to water- has consequence on right to life, right to food, right to adequate standard of living, right to housing, right to education, right to health, right to take part in cultural life, right to suitable working conditions, children right and women rights. Wise utilization of water, technological improvement, using alternative source of water, awareness creation, and applying proactive measures shall be taken to increase the availability of clean drinking water- which is basic right.
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