Indian Violation Of Indus Water Treaty: Challenges For Pakistan

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Siraj Ahmed Soomro, Allah Dino, Jalil Ahmed Chandio


Six rivers flow from Indian Occupied Kashmir (IOK) to Pakistan, a water source for millions of people in Pakistan and northwestern India. The distribution of rivers water emerged as a bone of conflict between India and Pakistan shortly after the partition of the Sub-continent. Since then, multiple agreements have been signed between two nuclear power countries to solve the water sharing issue. Finally, with the cooperation of the World Bank, on October 19, 1960, Indus Water Treaty (IWT) was signed between Indian and Pakistan in Karachi, and the problem stood resolved. However, time and again, India has been violating the Treaty. The crisis became serious when India managed to deprive Pakistan of its share. India built up the Bhakara dam and barrage to control the water flow to West Pakistan. Pakistan protested vehemently against it and brought the matter to the notice of the world. After the international community's involvement, both countries were brought to the table to negotiate the issue, but in vain. The study aims to develop an understanding of hydro challenges and Indian violation of IWT by constructing multiple dams on the rivers in the share of Pakistan. The Indian prime minister's recent statement that blood and water cannot flow altogether and bluntly threat of abrogation of IWT has created a new escalation of hydro clash in the region. To strategize its policy options, it is the need of the hour to engage academic discourse. Pakistan requires to enhance water storage capacity abruptly.

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