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Recently, a lot of research has been carried out on different techniques to improve the performance of microstrip patch antenna (MPA). Here, we have overviewed and summarized various techniques which has been invented in past to improve the gain and of the MPA. The addition of frequency selective surface (FSS), metallic reflectors, metamaterial, parasitic patches, air gap, superstrate, shorting pins, defective ground structure and partial substrate removal are some known techniques to improve antenna gain. This paper helps to decide the best technique of gain improvement for MPA.
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