Design, Validation, And Reliability Of An Observation Instrument Technique And Tactic In Handball

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Ardiansyah Rica Samsu Goli, Tomoliyus


The aims of this study were to design, validate, and test the reliability of a mixed observational instrument of field formats and category systems to analyze technical and tactical actions in the offense and defense in handball. The study was a research and development (R&D) with mixed method qualitative and quantitative, the sample was 21 international students in Indonesia. The instrument design, validation, and reliability calculation were done in four stages: (a) review of the literature, (b) design the first draft of the instrument, (c) experts’ qualitative and quantitative review of the instrument, and (d) observer training test. The content validity was established by 10 experts in which about: (a) comprehension of the criteria, categorical cores, degree of openness, and definitions, (b) pertinence of categorical cores and degree of openness, and (c) other categorical or degree in the observation instrument. The result showed that the lowest Aiken’s V index was 0.86 while the lowest Kappa index for the inter-reliability was 0.86 (defensive pressing lines) and above 0.86 for the intra-reliability (ball height) for the categorical core. The inter- and intra-observer reliability presented good levels of agreement. The coefficients of analysis showed a high level of accuracy, validity and reliability of the instrument. Conclusion showed that the instrument allows obtaining objective, valid and reliable information about the offensive and defense phase.

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