Wash back Impact on Teaching and Learning of English Language from Literacy & Numeracy Drive Test: A Mixed Method Study

Main Article Content

Muhammad Imran, Nazia Majeed, Samina Sarwat, Naeem Ullah


The Literacy & Numeracy Drive (LND) test is a multiple-choice test, introduced by Punjab Government in 2015 in order to create accountability among teachers and to build strong foundation of education system at primary level which clearly affects its stakeholders .This effect is known as Washback which may be either negative or positive. The present study was aimed to explore the Wash back impact on teaching and learning of English language from Literacy & Numeracy Drive (LND) Test. A survey questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 76 primary and elementary school teachers who were teaching to grade lll from six Markaz of Tehsil Sadiq Abad in order to capture opinions of teachers regarding Washback effect of LND test and to what extent it influences curriculum, methodology and learning. A semi-structured interview was also conducted in order to further explore this complex phenomenon. The data was analyzed through SPSS 20 to analyze frequencies and percentages of the responses. Results revealed that there is a strong negative Wash back from LND test that influences pedagogical skills of teachers and curriculum as they teach to the test. In addition, Whole attention was given to reading at the expense of other three language skills of speaking, listening and writing as these skills are not tested in LND test. This apparent negative Wash back effect on instructional practices presents a challenge to a successful implementation of LND test system in Teshsil Sadiq Abad.

Article Details